Jo Blanden
Matthias Doepke
Jan Stuhler

This chapter provides new evidence on educational inequality and reviews the literature on the causes and consequences of unequal education. We document large achievement gaps between children from different socioeconomic backgrounds, show how patterns of educational inequality vary across countries, time, and generations, and establish a link between educational inequality and social mobility. We interpret this evidence from the perspective of economic models of skill acquisition and investment in human capital. The models account for different channels underlying unequal education and highlight how endogenous responses in parents’ and children's educational investments generate a close link between economic inequality and educational inequality. Given concerns over the extended school closures during the Covid-19 pandemic, we also summarize early evidence on the impact of the pandemic on children’s education and on possible long-run repercussions for educational inequality. 

Publication Type
Working Paper
File Description
First version, April 2022
JEL Codes
I24: Education and Inequality
J16: Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
I24: Education and Inequality
I00: Health, Education, and Welfare: General
skill acquisition
educational inequality