Precipitated by rapid globalization, rising inequality, population growth, and longevity gains, social protection programs have been on the rise in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the last three decades.

Increasing mothers' labour supply in a child's preschool years can cause a reduction in time investments that lead to a negative direct effect on mid-childhood and teenage outcomes. But as mothers' work hours increase, income will rise.

This paper examines the effects of skill advantages at age six on different types of parental investments, and long-run outcomes up to age 27.

Volumes

The Oxford Series on Human Capital and Economic Opportunity will present state-of-the-art research from a variety of perspectives on the problems of opportunity, human flourishing, and public policy. Volumes in the series will be grouped in accordance with these themes and will be based on the work of HCEO members. In some cases, the volumes will contain research first presented at HCEO conferences, and in others will contain specially commissioned research. The series is published by the Oxford University Press.