Through an analysis of the 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016 Current Population Surveys, as well as the 2004 through 2016 General Social Surveys, this article investigates class differences and patterns of voter turnout for the last four US presidential elections.

In the 1960s at Stanford University’s Bing Preschool, children were given the option of taking an immediate, smaller reward or receiving a delayed, larger reward by waiting until the experimenter returned.

This paper studies the role of match quality for contractual arrangements, wage dynamics and workers’ retention. We develop a model in which profit maximizing firms offer a performance-based pay arrangement to retain workers with relatively high match-specific productivity.


The Oxford Series on Human Capital and Economic Opportunity will present state-of-the-art research from a variety of perspectives on the problems of opportunity, human flourishing, and public policy. Volumes in the series will be grouped in accordance with these themes and will be based on the work of HCEO members. In some cases, the volumes will contain research first presented at HCEO conferences, and in others will contain specially commissioned research. The series is published by the Oxford University Press.