Vicki Been
Ingrid Ellen
David Figlio
Ashlyn Aiko Nelson
Stephen L. Ross
Amy Ellen Schwartz
Leanna Stiefel
This study examines the effects of negative equity on children’s academic performance, using data on children attending Florida public schools and housing transactions from the State of Florida. Our empirical strategy exploits variation over time in the timing of family moves to Florida in order to account for household sorting into neighborhoods and schools and selection into initial mortgage terms. In contrast to the existing literature on foreclosure and children’s outcomes, we find that Florida students with the highest risk of negative equity exhibit significantly higher test score growth. These effects are largest among Black students and students who qualify for free or reduced-priced lunch. We find evidence supporting two underlying mechanisms: (1) consumption patterns suggest that families in negative equity may reduce the impact of income losses on consumption by forgoing mortgage payments, and (2) mobility patterns suggest that families exposed to high levels of negative equity may move to schools that are of higher quality on average. While negative equity and foreclosure are undesirable, the changing incentives in terms of mortgage delinquency may have helped families manage the economic shocks caused by the great recession, as well as temporarily reduced the housing market barriers faced by low income
households when attempting to access educational opportunities.
Publication Type
Working Paper
File Description
First version, January 31, 2021
JEL Codes
I24: Education and Inequality
O18: Economic Development: Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
J15: Economics of Minorities, Races, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
R23: Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population; Neighborhood Characteristics
housing wealth
racial disparities