Brendon McConnell
Kegon Teng Kok Tan
Mariyana Zapryanova

We provide the first evidence of the impact of 9/11 on outcomes for Muslims in the US criminal justice system. We focus on parole outcomes of Muslim men in the state of Georgia, and find that 9/11 led to large declines in the likelihood of being granted parole and a subsequent 23% relative increase in prison time for Muslim inmates. We find that these impacts persisted after 9/11 with similar sized magnitudes. We also examine heterogeneity in the effects by recidivism risk and find suggestive evidence that the effects were larger for higher risk inmates.

Publication Type
Working Paper
File Description
First version, February 27, 2023
JEL Codes
D91: Intertemporal Consumer Choice; Life Cycle Models and Saving
J15: Economics of Minorities, Races, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
parole board
terrorist attacks