Brendon McConnell
Kegon Teng Kok Tan
Mariyana Zapryanova

We provide the first evidence of the impact of 9/11 on outcomes for Muslims in the US criminal justice system. We focus on parole outcomes of Muslim men in the state of Georgia, and find large post-9/11 declines in the likelihood of being granted parole and a subsequent 23% relative increase in prison time for Muslim inmates. These impacts persisted for several years after 9/11 and were larger for inmates with higher levels of recidivism risk. We argue that these effects reflect unwarranted disparities driven by the decision-making of parole board members post-9/11.

Publication Type
Working Paper
File Description
Third version, January 19, 2024
JEL Codes
D91: Intertemporal Consumer Choice; Life Cycle Models and Saving
J15: Economics of Minorities, Races, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
parole board
terrorist attacks