Miriam Gensowski
Mikkel Aagaard Houmark
Cecilie Marie Løchte Jørgensen
Ida Lykke Kristiansen

We study how children’s socio-emotional skills and well-being in adolescence are affected by an increase in the duration of parental care during infancy. Ex- ploiting a Danish reform that extended paid parental leave in 2002 and effectively delayed children’s entry into formal out-of-home care, we show that longer leave increases adolescent well-being, conscientiousness and emotional stability, and reduces school absenteeism. The effects are strongest for children of mothers who would have taken short leave in absence of the reform. This highlights how time spent with a parent is particularly productive during very early childhood.

Publication Type
Working Paper
JEL Codes
J13: Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
J18: Demographic Economics: Public Policy
J24: Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
I31: General Welfare
parental leave
early childhood
skill formation
parental investments
Socio- Emotional Skills