D. Mark Anderson, Kerwin Kofi Charles, Daniel I. Rees, Tianyi Wang

According to Troesken (2004), efforts to purify municipal water supplies at the turn of the 20th century dramatically improved the relative health of blacks. There is, however, little empirical evidence to support the Troesken hypothesis. Using city-level data published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for the period 1906-1938, we explore the relationship between water purification efforts and the black-white infant mortality gap. Our results suggest that, while water filtration was effective across the board, adding chlorine to the water supply reduced mortality only among black infants. Specifically, chlorination is associated with an 11 percent reduction in black infant mortality and a 13 percent reduction in the black-white infant mortality gap. We also find that chlorination led to a substantial reduction in the black-white diarrhea mortality gap among children under the age of 2, although this estimate is measured with less precision. 

Publication Type
Working Paper
File Description
First version November 2019
JEL Codes
I18: Health: Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
J11: Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
J15: Economics of Minorities, Races, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
N30: Economic History: Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy: General, International, or Comparative
municipal water supply
water filtration