The second Summer School on Socioeconomic Inequality in China was co-sponsored by the Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Global Working Group (HCEO) and the University of Chicago Center in Beijing. This summer school was designed for graduate students and young faculty. Lecturers were Lawrence Blume of Cornell University, Chao Fu of the University of Wisconsin--Madison, Scott Rozelle of Stanford University, Mark Rosenzweig of Yale University, Jeffrey Smith of the University of Michigan, Yu Xie of the University of Michigan, Junsen Zhang of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and Zhong Zhao of Renmin University of China. Our goal was to both encourage younger scholars and to promote interactions between Western-based and China-based researchers. The summer school was held at the University of Chicago Center in Beijing and is being organized by Steven N. Durlauf of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Chao Fu of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and James J. Heckman of the University of Chicago.