This conference examined the implications of new research on identity for understanding inequality. Identity theories, as pioneered by George Akerlof and Rachel Kranton, are based on the idea that many individual choices do not maximize utility, as is conventionally argued in economics, but rather are made to fulfill an individual’s conception of the person he or she is/wishes to be. This perspective has important implications for many aspects of inequality, ranging from attitudes towards education to interethnic interactions to the nature of social norms. This conference will lead to a volume in the HCEO Oxford University Press series on Inequality.