This meeting brought together researchers from a range of disciplines who have been exploring the role of genetic influences on socioeconomic outcomes. The approaches taken to incorporating genes into social science models differ widely. First, this conference provided a forum in which alternative frameworks were discussed and critically evaluated. Second, the meeting triggered extended interactions and future collaboration. Third, the meeting helped focus future genetics-related initiatives by the Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Global Working Group, which is pursuing the study of inequality and social mobility over the next several years.